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Journal of the Grace Evangelical Society, Spring 1998 -- Volume 11:20
Making Your Calling and Election Sure:
An Exposition of 2 Peter 1:5-111
ZANE C. HODGES Mesquite, TX
Perseverance is one of the major battlegrounds in the debate over the
gospel. Many suggest that those believers who fail to persevere either lose their
salvation, or else prove that they were never genuinely saved in the first place. One of
the major prooftexts for this supposed doctrine is found in the first chapter of 2 Peter.
There Peter commands believers to add Christian character qualities to their faith so that
they might make their calling and election sure, so that they might not stumble, and so
that they might be supplied with an abundant entrance to the everlasting kingdom of our
Lord and Savior Jesus Christ.
There can be little doubt that Peter here conditions this abundant
kingdom entrance upon making our calling and election sure by persevering in the
development and maintenance of Christian character qualities. Faith alone will not be
effective in securing this abundant entrance.
A careful consideration of the context of these remarks shows that
they are not supporting the Reformed Doctrine of the Perseverance of the Saints. Indeed,
they actually support the opposite conclusion, that believers in Christ are secure
forever, whether they add Christian character qualities to their faith or not. What is at
stake, here, as we shall see, is not kingdom entrance, but abundant kingdom entrance.
In vv 3-4 of 2 Peter the Christian readers are reminded that when
they came to know Christ at salvation, God imparted to them everything they needed to live
a godly life, to share experientially in God's nature, and to escape the sinful corruption
of the world in which they lived. This sets the stage for vv 5-11. We begin by considering
vv 5-7 and the character qualities that believers are to add to their faith.
Adding Character to Your Faith
But also for this very reason, giving all diligence, add to your faith virtue, to
virtue knowledge, to knowledge self-control, to self-control perseverance, to perseverance
godliness, to godliness brotherly kindness, and to brotherly kindness love (2 Pet 1:5-7).
With the opening words of v 5, "But also for this very
reason," Peter turns to the responsibility of his Christian readers. It is precisely
because God has "given to us all things that pertain to life and godliness" (v
3) that Christians are now responsible to draw upon these provisions in order to build a
godly character in an ungodly world.
To put it another way, because of what God has done (vv 3-4), there
is now something we should do (vv 5-7). It is true, of course, that we cannot develop real
Christian character apart from the ongoing work of the Holy Spirit in our lives. But
obviously, the gift of the Spirit Himself is one of the necessary provisions God has made
for us as mentioned in v 3. Our responsibility is real, however, for in order for
Christian character to develop, we must cooperate with the Spirit's work in us and draw
upon the spiritual resources God has provided.
Spirituality, then, is a choice. It does not come automatically or
inevitably. Those who think it does are not looking closely enough at the Scriptures.
Thus in vv 5-7 Peter tells us something we are to do and to do with
"all diligence." And what is that? To begin with, we are to add virtue to our
faith. The Greek word used for "virtue" here (areth ) is a general word
for moral excellence. In the ethical teaching of the Hellenistic world of Peter's day, the
word seems often to have indicated mastery over one's baser passions and lusts. Thus the
translation "virtue" is more or less on target. Even our word
"morality" is not too wide of the mark.
Every Christian starts out his Christian experience with
"faith." After all, we are saved by grace through faith. But one of our first
responsibilities is to begin to build on that faith a life that is
"virtuous"-that is, a life that can be characterized as highly moral and
ethical. Indeed, if the Christian fails to add "virtue" to his faith, his faith
will soon become what James described as "dead faith" (Jas 2:14-26). Its
vitality and productivity will disappear. In fact, Peter says this same thing in his own
way in vv 8-9!
But the Christian disciple is not to be satisfied with
"morality" alone, as important as that is. To "virtue" he should also
add "knowledge." Morality, we must remember, is not simply a rigid adherence to
a set of rules. If virtue becomes nothing more than conformity to commands (though it is
that in a real sense), it is in danger of degenerating into legalism. Morality must be
constantly informed and guided by knowledge.
Indeed, the writer of Hebrews defined spiritual maturity as belonging
to "those who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and
evil" (Heb 5:14). The believer is not to remain a babe in Christ who does things
simply because he is told to do them-though that is the proper place to start our
obedience to God. But God wants us to grow in spiritual understanding so that we not only
do what is right but also understand why it is right!
In other words, in Christian living God wants us not only to do but
to discern. For that we need the ever-deepening "knowledge" of God's Word.
To "knowledge," however, the believer is also to add
"self-control." The Greek word translated "self-control" (enkrateia
) is hard to define precisely here. It could, of course, refer to control of our physical
drives. But in the ethical thought of Peter's day it could apparently indicate that
personal prudence which avoided extremes and led to moderation rather than
A meaning like "disciplined moderation" would probably come
close to the mark here. Out of "knowledge" there should arise that down-to-earth
restraint which leads to a balanced life free from harmful extremes. We might describe
this as "balanced self-discipline" in all that we do.
But further, to "self-control" Peter urges us to add
"perseverance." Clearly the person who cultivates a virtuous life, which is
reinforced by knowledge and self-discipline, is well prepared for the worst of times. But
in the midst of trial and disappointment he will find his virtue, knowledge, and
self-discipline all put to the test. Can he maintain his own standards and self-control?
What he needs, therefore, is to develop "perseverance" so that neither Christian
character nor conduct is marred or damaged by even the hardest of personal trials.
Here we should recall Paul's statement that "tribulation
produces perseverance" (Rom 5:3). James also declared that "the testing of your
faith produces patience" (= perseverance; the same word as is found here in 2 Peter
and in Rom 5:3). Every difficulty of life can become an opportunity to develop the very
quality of which Peter speaks.
It may also be suggested that this quality cannot become a really
solid trait in us until God has sent us through some hard experiences. This is one reason
we should "count it all joy when we fall into various trials" (Jas 1:2).
But to "perseverance" we should also add
"godliness." In everyday use, the word here (eusebeia) suggested
"piety, godliness, religion"2 and reverence, loyalty, and fear of
God. In the NT, it seems to have definite overtones of the awe in which God should be
The writer of Hebrews uses this word when he writes that our Lord, in
praying for deliverance from death, "was heard because of His godly fear" (Heb
2:7). He uses it again at the end of the main section of his book where he says
"...let us have grace, by which we may serve God acceptably with reverence and godly
fear" (= eusebeia; Heb 12:28, italics added).
Out of the trials of life can come not only the quality of
"perseverance," but also a deepening of our reverence and awe for the living
God. Not only can we come to acknowledge His sovereign control over our lives-including
His right to send us hard times-but we can also learn to praise Him for the mercies He
grants in our deepest times of need. Such attitudes are a part of the humble reverence for
our Maker which is an indispensable ingredient in true "godliness."
It is in v 7 that we now meet the two crowning pinnacles of
fully-developed Christian character. They are first, "brotherly kindness" (= philadelphia,
that is "brotherly love"); and second, love itself (= agaph).
Experience among the Lord's people shows only too plainly how often
"brotherly love" fails or is absent altogether in Christian-to-Christian
relationships. This should not surprise us since "brotherly love" is here
presented as one of the two final additions to developed Christian character. And although
babes in Christ may experience it intermittently and in measure, consistent, ongoing
"brotherly love" is the product of the qualities that precede it in Peter's
list. For in constructing a Christian character marked by virtue, knowledge, balanced
self-discipline, perseverance, and a God-fearing behavior, the Christian lays down exactly
the right kind of supporting platform for a life marked also by "love toward the
brethren" and "love toward all men."
In the process of Christian living, few things must endure heavier
blows than do "brotherly love" and "love." People are in so many ways
hard to love and even fellow believers are frequently a source of disappointment and
trial. No one can crown his Christian experience with consistent displays of love apart
from laying the groundwork suggested by the preceding qualities in Peter's list.
It should also be noted that "brotherly love" precedes
"love." This implies that "love" is not only the capstone of the list
but is also wider than our circle of fellow believers. Like God Himself (John 3:16), we
are to love the unsaved. If and when we do, evangelistic efforts will be far more than
obedience to the Great Commission. They will also be the outflow-through us-of the
God-like love which caused the Father to send the Son to be the propitiation for the sins
of the whole world (1 John 2:2).
Or to put it another way, the character Peter describes in this list
turns out to be, in the last analysis, the character manifested here on earth by our Lord
and Savior Jesus Christ.
The Short-Term Results of Character-Building
For if these things are yours and abound, you will be neither barren
nor unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ. For he who lacks these things is
shortsighted, even to blindness, and has forgotten that he was purged from his old sins (2
In v 8 Peter now calls attention to the positive results of the
character-building process he has just described in vv 5-7.
The Christian man or woman who has the qualities mentioned, and who
has them in increasing measure, will be a fruitful person. The English word
"abound" represents a Greek participle (pleonazonta) that could easily be
rendered "are abounding" or "are increasing." It is not merely that
the apostle wants these qualities to be possessed ("are yours") by his readers.
He also wants the qualities to be steadily increasing in them as well. Only then can
fruitfulness in Christian living be assured.
It has often been said that in Christian experience we can never
really remain "static." Instead, we are either continuing to grow or we have
begun to slip backward. None of the admirable spiritual qualities mentioned in vv 5-7 can
ever be said (in this life) to have reached a level beyond which no progress is possible.
No matter how much I love, for example, I can always love more--and more and more! But
equally, I must not suppose that I can never love less than I currently do (cf. Matt
24:12). None of the qualities of vv 5-7 are permanently mine while I live in my sinful
body. Deterioration in our Christian character is a danger we must all guard against.
"Therefore let him who thinks he stands take heed lest he
fall" (1 Cor 10:12). It is not enough for a believer simply to have these qualities
in some measure. If they are not "increasing" in him, this is a clear danger
sign that his fundamental fruitfulness for God has been impaired.
"But," says Peter, "if 'these things' are both yours
and increasing in you, I can guarantee that they will protect you from being barren or
unfruitful." The Greek word translated "barren" here (argos ) might
better be translated "idle, lazy," or "useless, unproductive."3
The concept suggested by this word is crucial. A Christian who is "inactive" in
his Christian faith is also going to be "unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord
Jesus Christ." Conversely, a vigorous, active believer who serves God will most
assuredly be "fruitful."
So the key to vigor and productivity in the Christian life is to be
found in the character qualities of vv 5-7. If the transforming power of God is at work in
me, changing me, it will also be at work through me! Or as Paul would say, "It is God
who works in you both to will and to do for His good pleasure" (Phil 2:13).
The correlation Peter makes between Christian character and fruitful
Christian activity is not stressed nearly enough in the modern church. Churches are often
divided and damaged by "active" members who lack many of the qualities
(including "brotherly kindness!") which Peter talked about. "Activity"
can occur without character development, but ongoing "fruitfulness" cannot!
Suppose, then, that a Christian lacks these spiritual qualities. What
is true of him? Peter points out three things (shortsighted, blind, and forgetful) in v 9.
First, the character-deficient Christian can be said to be
"shortsighted." The Greek verb muwpazw seems to suggest the sort of
"squinting" which is so noticeable in near-sighted people. Such people cannot
see very far in front of them.
What does Peter have in mind? Since the epistle as a whole lays heavy
stress on the reality and certainty of the Lord's coming (see vv 11, 16, 19, and 3:4-14),
the apostle is probably thinking of believers who no longer look ahead to the Rapture.
Instead, their vision is severely limited to the here and now. People who live simply for
the present time, or for the present world, are tragically "shortsighted."
But that is not all. Second, a Christian who lacks the qualities
mentioned in vv 5-7, is also "blind." Commentators have wrestled needlessly with
the supposed tension between calling a person both "shortsighted" and
"blind." Even the NKJV attempts to harmonize with the translation
"shortsighted, even to blindness." But the Greek text does not say this.
In fact, the word order of the original text actually calls for a
translation like this:
For he who lacks these things is blind, short sighted, and has forgotten...
Thus the term "blind" is actually the first-mentioned trait
of the character-poor believer, while "shortsighted" is the second.
We may say, therefore, that a person without the vital qualities of
vv 5-7 suffers from spiritual "blindness" since he does not see reality, life,
or Christian experience as God sees them. He is blind to the spiritual truths which he
needs to grasp in order to function properly in this present world. Like a blind man,
lacking either cane or guide-dog, he trips and stumbles constantly (see v 10!).
But a person who is blind to the spiritual realities of life from
God's viewpoint is also "shortsighted" about the future. He is not challenged by
the Second Advent to be a better person than he is (see 3:11-14). There is no need to
twist these concepts into a formal and physiological harmony. Metaphors need not be
physically compatible to be clear and comprehensible. On a spiritual level, a person can
be both "blind" and "shortsighted."
Third, he can also be "forgetful." So Peter charges that
the Christian who lacks the proper character "has forgotten that he was cleansed from
his old sins."
But note! This individual is a Christian! He has been "cleansed
from his old sins." This statement by the apostle makes it unmistakable that he can
conceive of a "cleansed" believer lacking the qualities found in vv 5-7. He
deplores the spiritual condition of such a person, but he in no way raises questions about
that person's salvation.
Peter was certainly a spiritual realist even if many modern
theologians are not. He does not take it for granted that spiritual growth will occur
automatically or inevitably. Indeed, the character development he thinks of cannot occur
apart from the believer "giving all diligence" toward that end (v 5). This does
not mean, of course, that the believer does this all on his own. God supplies the basic
resources and provides help along the way. But Christian growth will not occur apart from
our diligent participation in the process. If we learn nothing else from this passage, we
must learn this. We do not passively experience Christian growth, but actively pursue it!
In what sense, then, does the non-growing Christian
"forget" his past cleansing? It is doubtful that Peter means that he simply
cannot recall the fact. (Though in extreme cases that might be true.) However, both in
Greek and in English, the word "forget" can also mean "to lack concern
for," "to neglect." New Testament examples of this significance, with a
Greek verb meaning "to forget," are Phil 3:13 and Heb 6:10; 13:2, 16.
The expression used here by Peter (lathan labwn , literally,
"receiving forgetfulness") no doubt contains a similar connotation. The blind
and shortsighted believer is disregarding and neglecting his past experience of God's
This implies, of course, a lack of appreciation for God's mercy in
the past. But it also shows an unconcern about new sins which will also require
forgiveness from God. Naturally this does not mean that such a Christian is in danger of
losing eternal life. That is not at all the issue. Yet the fact remains that sinning
believers must seek their Father's forgiveness in order to renew their fellowship with him
(see 1 John 1:7-9). One who has already tasted God's forgiving grace-and who keeps that
experience in mind-cannot lightly accumulate new failures that need forgiveness as well.
The proper kind of remembrance of our past cleansing ought to galvanize us to pursue
holiness and growth.
Even when we remember that we are forgiven people, we have
"forgotten" what that means if our lives do not reflect true growth in grace
(see 2 Pet 3:17-18).
In summary, then, Peter declares that character-deficient Christians
are "blind" at the present moment, "shortsighted" about the future,
and "forgetful" of God's grace in the past.
The Long-Term Results of Character-Building
Therefore, brethren, be even more diligent to make your calling and election sure, for
if you do these things you will never stumble; for so an entrance will be supplied to you
abundantly into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2 Pet
In view of these facts, diligence is all the more desirable in
developing such a lifestyle. The NKJV's rendering of v 10, be even more diligent, implies
that their diligence should increase. But another rendering (favored by the position of
the Greek words) would be: "All the more, therefore, brethren, be diligent..."
This can then mean something like: "After what I have just said about these qualities
[in vv 8-9], you have all the more reason to be diligent." Peter has thus far argued
for the moral development presented in vv 5-7 on the basis of (1) God's gracious
provisions for Christian living (vv 3-4) and on the basis of (2) the personal results,
both positive and negative, that the presence or absence of these traits produce (vv 8-9).
The first reason was quite adequate to motivate diligence in spiritual growth. But the
second reason gave his readers even more incentive to be diligent.
But the personal results affecting our present quality of life (vv
8-9) carry with them other results of broader scope. These include verification of our
election and a magnificent entrance into the coming kingdom of God.
Thus, in v 10, Peter does not simply repeat his earlier command to
diligently add the qualities of vv 5-7. Instead he enjoins his readers to make their
calling and election sure. But this statement has often been misinterpreted and
misapplied. It deserves our careful attention.
The Greek word translated "sure" is the adjective bebaios.
Moulton and Milligan give us helpful insight into this word. They write:
Deissmann (BS, p. 104 ff.) has shown very fully how much force the technical use of
this word and its cognates to denote legally guaranteed security adds to their occurrence
in the NT.4
A particular example is drawn from a Greek papyrus which is
translated, "and I will further guarantee [parexomai....bebaia] the
property always against all claims with every guarantee [bebaiosei ]." J. B.
Mayor writes of the Greek phrase for "make sure" in 2 Pet 1:10 that it equals
the simple verb bebaioun and means "'to certify,' 'confirm,' 'attest'."5
This should make it clear that we are in no way required to conclude,
as does the standard Greek lexicon, that the meaning here is "to confirm the call,
i.e., so that it does not lapse."6 As Paul has told us, "the gifts
and the calling of God are irrevocable" (Rom 11:29).
Still less can this text mean that Christians are to confirm their
call and election (to eternal salvation) to themselves. Such an idea is completely foreign
to this passage (and to the NT!). Peter has just finished addressing his readers as
"those who have obtained like precious faith with us" (1:1). Moreover, in vv 3-4
he unmistakably treats them as Christians whom God has richly endowed. To suggest that
despite these direct statements by the apostle, his readers are still uncertain about
their "call and election" to eternal life, is to force on the text an alien
theological presupposition. This idea is not the product of exegesis at all, but the
torturing of the text into conformity with a preconceived opinion.
In light of the comments of Moulton and Milligan and of Mayor (quoted
above), the meaning of this verse should be obvious. Given its legal usage, the phrase bebaion...poieisthai
can mean "to certify," "to offer valid confirmation"-i.e., to others.
That is, when a Christian develops the character qualities of vv 5-7, he is producing
valid evidence for others to observe that God has indeed "called" and
"chosen" him. This is similar to James's doctrine of justification by works
before men.7 The unsaved are not likely to believe that we are in God's favor
on our own say-so alone. But a life filled with moral virtue and capped with love (v 7)
can be very persuasive. As the Lord Jesus put it: "By this all will know that you are
my disciples, if you have love for one another" (John 13:35).
If we understand the text this way, we can look again at the words
your call and election. If the word election (eklogh = selection, choosing)
referred to our being chosen before time (as in Eph 1:4), it is surprising that the phrase
is not reversed: "your election and calling." That sequence would conform, for
example, to Rom 8:30 where we read "whom He predestined, these He also called."
It seems probable, therefore, that we have here one of the many
verbal allusions in the Petrine epistles to the teaching Peter had heard from the Lord
Jesus Christ Himself. The sequence call-choose brings to mind the famous statement by our
Lord that "many are called, but few are chosen (eklektoi , italics added).
These words, however, occur only twice in the Gospels, both instances being in Matthew
(20:16; 22:14). But there is little reason to doubt that Peter must have heard them many
times. In the Gospels, we only have a fragment of our Lord's spoken words (see John
In any case, this statement by Jesus occurs in eschatological
contexts both times it is used in Matthew. In one of these places, it concludes the
parable of the workers in the vineyard (20:1-16) and follows the vineyard owner's decisive
pronouncement about the wages of the workers (vv 13-15). In the other place, it follows
the parable of the wedding supper (22:1-14) and follows the host's decisive command to
expel the improperly dressed man (vv 12-13). It is beyond the scope of this article to
expound these parables here. Suffice it to say this, clearly the parable about the
vineyard workers refers to Christian service up to our Lord's return, while the man in the
parable of the wedding feast has not prepared himself for the host's review and represents
a believer unprepared for the Judgment Seat of Christ.8
From both parables it is plain that the "choice" is made
after the "call"! The vineyard workers are all "called" to labor
(i.e., "invited;" the Greek verb is of the same root as "calling" in 2
Pet 1:10), but the "choice" about their wages is made when the vineyard owner
appears in the evening. Some are "chosen" to receive pay equal to those who have
worked longer. In the wedding feast situation, many are "invited" and many turn
down the invitation. But even one who came poorly dressed is not "chosen" to
participate, although he had been "called" (invited).
What does all this mean for our text here? Clearly Peter encourages
the building of Christian character (vv 5-7) which, in turn, leads to Christian activity
and fruitfulness (v 8). This kind of lifestyle leads to pay, as it did for the vineyard
workers in Matthew 20. (The common Greek word in the NT for "reward" [misthos
] basically means pay.) Unlike the poorly dressed man who appeared at the wedding feast,
the lifestyle Peter commands will prepare his readership to be properly
"clothed" when they meet their Lord. Indeed, he states just such a desire for
them at the end of the epistle:
Therefore, beloved, looking forward to these things, be diligent to be found by Him,
without spot and blameless...(3:14, italics added).
We propose, therefore, that Peter's words do not refer here to a
pre-temporal election to eternal salvation, which by its very nature would precede the
call to salvation. Instead, all Christians have been given a "royal" summons by
God Himself, "who calls [us] into His own kingdom and glory" (1 Thess 2:12). And
a supremely significant part of that glory is the privilege of co-reigning with Christ (2
Tim 2:12; Rev 2:26-27; 3:21). But not all Christians are chosen to co-reign! Paul writes:
"If we endure, we shall also reign with Him" (2 Tim 2:12, italics added); and he
also wrote, "and joint heirs with Christ, if indeed we suffer with Him, that we may
also be glorified together" (Rom 8:17b, italics added).
Peter, therefore, wishes his readership to produce in their lifestyle
appropriate verification that they are "royal" people, destined for high honor
in the coming kingdom of God. By doing these things (i.e., the things Peter is talking
about), their road into the glories of that kingdom will be smooth. They will not stumble
on that path and thus run the risk of losing the rewards they are "called" to
obtain (see 1 Cor 9:27). Instead, they shall prove themselves "chosen" for the
This understanding of v 10 finds immediate support in v 11. All
born-again Christians will enter the kingdom of Christ, but those who develop the
Christian character described in this chapter will have a special kind of entrance. For
so, says Peter, an entrance will be supplied to you ABUNDANTLY! The word
"abundantly" translates the Greek adverb plousiws , which more precisely
means richly. (The adjective/noun plousiws is the usual word in the NT for
"rich" or "rich man.") This idea recalls the Lord's teaching in Luke
12 where He censures the life of the rich fool with these words:
So is he who lays up treasure for himself, and is not rich [ploutwn ] toward God
(Luke 12:21, italics added).
This important statement in Luke is followed by an exhortation from
Jesus to His disciples (see Luke 12:1) not to be concerned by their daily needs, but to
rely on God for them (12:22-31). Verse 31 concludes the exhortation by urging that God's
kingdom be given priority: "But seek the kingdom of God, and all these things shall
be added to you."
The very next statement by our Lord also relates to this kingdom
("It is the Father's good pleasure to give you the kingdom," v 32, italics
added) and is followed by an exhortation to lay up heavenly treasure (12:33-34). Clearly,
the seeking and gaining of the kingdom and of heavenly treasure are interwoven themes in
the teaching of our Lord. The doctrine they pertain to is the doctrine of rewards.
This is equally true of 2 Pet 1:10-11. Salvation from hell is not in
view. Heavenly reward is the real theme. The holy and fruitful lifestyle of vv 3-8 can be
a demonstration-a verification-that an individual Christian has not only been
"called," but actually "chosen," for great reward in God's future
kingdom. As he or she diligently pursues this pathway, doing the things that Peter has
enjoined, he will be able to avoid any serious spiritual fall (you will never stumble).
Thus his pathway can climax in a rich entrance into the everlasting kingdom of our Lord
and Savior Jesus Christ. Everlasting wealth, or treasure, can be his in an everlasting
The study of this important passage, in the light of its relationship
to future reward, can be appropriately concluded with the words of Michael Green who
writes on v 11 as follows:
This passage agrees with several in the Gospels and Epistles in suggesting that while
heaven is entirely a gift of grace, it admits of degrees of felicity, and that these are
dependent upon how faithfully we have built a structure of character and service upon the
foundation of Christ. Bengel likens the unholy Christian in the judgment to a sailor who
just manages to make shore after shipwreck, or to a man who barely escapes with his life
from a burning house, while all his possessions are lost. In contrast, the Christian who
has allowed his Lord to influence his conduct will have abundant entrance into the
heavenly city, and be welcomed like a triumphant athlete victorious in the Games. This
whole paragraph of exhortation is thus set between two poles: what we already are in
Christ and what we are to become. The truly Christian reader, unlike the scoffers, will
look back to the privileges conferred on him, of partaking in the divine nature, and will
seek to live worthily of it. He will also look forward to the day of assessment, and
strive to live in light of it.9
1This article, originally published in three parts in The
Kerugma Message (Nov-Dec 1991, and Spring and Winter 1992), has been slightly edited
and revised and is used by permission of Kerugma, Inc. Individuals may receive The
Kerugma Message at no cost by sending their name and address to Kerugma, Inc., PO Box
141167, Dallas, TX 75214.
4Moulton and Milligan, The Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament, 107.
5Mayor, J. B., The Epistle of St. Jude and the Second Epistle of Saint Peter,
7Hodges, Zane C., The Gospel Under Siege, 2nd ed., 32-36.
8For very helpful discussions of Matt 22:1-14, see the article by Gregory
Sapaugh, "A Call to the Wedding Celebration: An Exposition of Matthew 22:1-14," Journal
of the Grace Evangelical Society 5 (Spring, 1992): 11-34; and the article by Michael
G. Huber on "The 'Outer Darkness' in Matthew and Its Relationship to Grace," in
the Autumn 1992 issue of this same journal. See also the chapter, "The Darkness
Outside," in my book Grace in Eclipse.
9Green, Michael, The Second Epistle of Peter and the Epistle of Jude,
Tyndale Bible Commentaries, 76-77.
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